L. Lengert
H. Lohmann
S. Johannsmeier
T. Ripken
H. Maier
A. Heisterkamp
S. Kalies

Optoacoustic tones generated by nanosecond laser pulses can cover the entire human hearing range

Journal of Biophotonics
Type: Zeitschriftenaufsatz (reviewed)
The aim of this work is to generate defined tones that cover the human hearing range in aqueous media for a later application in middle or inner ear implants. In our experiments, we investigated the characteristics of single laser pulses and pulse trains with different laser repetition rates of nanosecond laser pulses that were focused into aqueous media in a small volume. The frequency of the generated tones was limited by the spectral properties of the single acoustic pulses, which depended on the medium. Tones with fundamental frequencies above 8 kHz were generated using laser pulses focused into water. By replacing water with gel, tones between 500 Hz and 20 kHz could be produced. The generation of tones in the low-frequency range was only possible when laser pulse trains with pulse density modulated pulse patterns were applied in gel. This enabled the generation of tones between 20 Hz and 2 kHz. Consequently, the combination of different pulse patterns for the different frequency ranges allows generating optoacoustic tones between 20 Hz and 20 kHz in gel. Thus, we can cover the complete range of human hearing by optoacoustically-generated tones. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.