N. Schwarz
M. Lammers
J. Hermsdorf
S. Kaierle
H. Ahlers
R. Lachmayer

Intermixing behavior of 1.4430 stainless steel and 1.4718 valve steel in in situ alloying using coaxial laser double-wire laser directed energy deposition

Journal of Laser Applications
Type: Zeitschriftenaufsatz (reviewed)
Coaxial laser wire directed energy deposition promises a direction-independent buildup of near net shape geometries and surface coatings. Simultaneously introducing two different wire materials into the processing zone enables the production of in situ alloyed or even functionally graded structures. Functionally graded materials and in situ alloyed parts aim to extend the range of materials for development purposes. This work covers the intermixing behavior of two wire materials with greatly differing element contents. Therefore, a multiple diode coaxial laser (DiCoLas) processing head is used consisting of three individually controllable fiber coupled laser diodes with a combined maximum output power of 660 W and a wavelength of 970 nm. Two metal wires, 1.4430 and 1.4718, with a diameter of 0.8 mm are provided simultaneously to the processing zone under an incidence angle of 3.5° to the processing head's middle axis. The DiCoLas processing head enables a stable welding process with good dimensional accuracy of the single welding geometries. Single weld seams and multiple-layer structures are investigated to cover the intermixing behavior for different applications of additive manufacturing. Thermal images of the melting process provide an insight into the melting behavior of the two wire materials and the formation of the weld seam. energy-dispersive x-ray-mappings and line scans display the element distribution of the main alloying elements along the seam cross section. Furthermore, hardness measurements examine the hardness progression along the multiple-layer welding structures showing an even progression of the hardness values over the entire cross section.