M. Siemens
B. Emde
M. Henkel
R. Methling
S. Franke
D. Gonzalez
J. Hermsdorf

Investigation of Laser-Induced Cavity and Plasma Formation inWater Using Double-Pulse LIBS

Type: Zeitschriftenaufsatz (reviewed)
This paper deals with double-pulse laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) underwater, which is a promising analytical method for elemental analysis in the deep sea up to a water depth of 6000 m. A double-pulse laser with a wavelength of 1064 nm is used, which provides a pulse energy of up to 266 mJ for each laser pulse (in single pulse mode), a pulse width of 5–7 ns and a pulse delay in the range of 0.5 to 20 s. In the double-pulse LIBS method, the first laser pulse creates a cavity on the material surface, and then the second laser pulse forms the plasma in this cavity. It is expected that the plasma is affected by the cavity’s size and lifetime. For this reason, the influence of focus position, pulse energy and pulse delay on the cavity and plasma formation at shallow water depth has been investigated.