B. A. Behrens
H. J. Maier
G. Poll
L. Overmeyer
H. Wester
J. Uhe
T. Hassel
F. Pape
M. Lammers
J. Hermsdorf
S. Kaierle
L. Budde
F. Saure
M. Mildebrath
T. Coors
M. Y. Faqiri
C. Büdenbender

Influence of degree of deformation on welding pore reduction in high-carbon steels

Production Engineering Research and Development
Type: Zeitschriftenaufsatz (reviewed)
Locally adapted properties within a machine component offer opportunities to increase the performance of a component by using high strenght materials where they are needed. The economic production of such hybrid components on the other hand represents a major challenge. The new tailored forming process chain, which is developed within the collaborative research center (CRC 1153) represents a possible solution to produce hybrid components. This is made possible by the use of pre-joined hybrid semi-finished products made from two different steel alloys, which are subsequently formed. The semi- finished products can be manufactured for example by means of deposition welding. Due to a thermal mechanical treatment, an overall higher component strength of the joining zone can be achieved. The deposition welding processes can be used to generate a cladding on a base material. During the welding, one of the most difficult tasks is to reduce the amount and size of pores in the joining zone. These pores can reduce the strength in the joining zone of the welded parts. However, additional pores can occur in the intermediate zone between the substrate and the cladding. In the presented study, the influence of the forming process on the closing of pores in the cladding and in the intermediate zone was investigated. Therefore, cylindri- cal specimen were extracted in longitudinal direction of the welding track by wire-cut eroding. These welding tracks are manufactured by plasma-transferred arc welding of AISI 52100 on a base plate made of AISI 1015. Further, specimens were prepared transversely, so that the base material, the intermediate layer, and the welded material are axially arranged in the specimen. The prepared specimen were checked for pores by means of scanning acoustic microscopy. Subsequently, an uniaxial compression test was carried out with various degrees of deformation and the two specimen designs were examined again for pores. A microstructure analysis was carried out after each step. The investigations show that there is a need for a minimum degree of deformation to reduce pores in the welded material. However, this required plastic strain cannot be achieved in the welded material of the hybrid specimen, which is a result of the homogeneous temperature distribution in the specimen. The homogeneous temperature distribution leads to different flow properties in the specimen, which means that the main plastic deformation is taking place in the base material.